There has been foreign interference in Canada's elections, but a public inquiry is not being recommended.
David Johnston released his first report as special rapporteur.
He says at this time, much of the information he used to draft his report is classified.
"The intelligence I've reviewed is, and must remain secret," Johnston told a press conference Tuesday morning.
"As a result, the reality is, any credible public inquiry would not be public at all."
He points out there are a number of ways there has been foreign influence.
"The common techniques of foreign interference include cyber attacks, online influence campaigns, disinformation, and the exploitation of human relationships. Fortunately, measures put in place by our governments have been largely successful."
Johnston adds that while there has been foreign influence, it did not affect the outcome of federal elections in 2019 and 2021.